It is necessary to have some understanding of what these terms mean and how they are formally used (and misused) before considering some specific creationist writings on the australopithecines. Human fossils dated between 3.5 and nearly 7 million years old discovered during the last 8 years have been assigned to as many as four new genera of the family Hominidae: Ardipithecus, Orrorin, Kenyanthropus, and Sahelanthropus. This partly follows Day et al. A skeleton well-adapted to bipedal locomotion B. Australopithecus garhi has been proposed as an ancestor for Homo mainly because: it had longer legs relative to arm length than other australopithecines. https://quizlet.com/351638443/human-evolution-final-flash-cards The species Australopithecus africanus and it's associated "osteodontokeratic" (bone, teeth and horns) tools/culture complex. referred to as the “ robust ” australopithecines) and. ''Paranthropus robustus'' and ''boisei'' are known as ''robust australopithecines'', because their skulls in particular are more heavily built. Which of the following hominids has the most primitive (ancestral) traits? Anatomical changes in hominids that are indicative of habitual bipedal locomotion include, The oldest "hyper-robust" australopithecine fossil. Although the transition from Australopithecus to Homo is usually thought of as a momentous transformation, the fossil record bearing on the origin and earliest evolution of Homo is virtually undocumented. (Gracile means "slender", and in paleoanthropology is used as an antonym to "robust"). The australopithecines occurred in the Plio-Pleistocene era and were bipedal , and they were dentally similar to humans, but with a brain size not much larger than that of modern apes , with lesser encephalization than in the genus Homo . Some characteristics that have distinguished hominins from other primates, ... Members of Australopithecus are sometimes referred to as the gracile australopithecines, while Paranthropus are called the "robust australopithecines". They also questioned whether the brain size of Homo habilis was really that much larger than that of Australopithecus . Later, it was decided that the skull was actually an Australopithecus africanus individual and there is also some debate about whether this skull was that of a female or male. Other genera: Kenyanthropus (3.5 to 3.2) mya is either a separate genus of australos, or a species of Australopithecus. The exact nature and extent of ... claim for a dispersal are some disputed stone tools. ... are present only in some platyrrhines. In which of these periods did the hominoid apes flourish and exhibit great diversity? Kenyanthropus. Some australopithecines are referred to as "robust" or placed into the genus Paranthropus because of a large sagittal crest, flaring zygomatics (cheek bones), and large molar teeth. Because the large named emissary veins pass through observable foramina and venous sinuses leave traces that are imprinted within the braincase, cranial blood flow has been studied in three genera of fossil hominins (Paranthropus, Australopithecus, and early Homo).Fossils of so-called robust australopithecines (Paranthropus) date from approximately 2.5 to 1.0 Ma and are known from South … Small jaws C. Big brains relative to body size. Australopithecus robustus. Some australopithecines are referred to as "robust" because a. their cranial capacity had increased dramatically. Paranthropus robustus is a species of robust australopithecine from the Early and possibly Middle Pleistocene of the Cradle of Humankind, South Africa, about 2 to 1 or 0.6 million years ago.It has been identified in Kromdraai, Swartkrans, Sterkfontein, Gondolin, Cooper's, and Drimolen Caves. The extremely wide face of the robust australopithecines is attributed primarily to the size of the temporalis muscle, which is responsible for the lateral extension of the zygomatic arch. Study Flashcards On chpt 10 test at Cram.com. There was some size variation between the different species of Paranthropus, but most stood roughly 1.3-1.4 m (4.26 to 4.59 feet) tall and were quite well muscled. The robust australopithecines had a diet likely composed mostly of. A) much more aggressive than gracile australopithecines B) meat eaters C) an evolutionary dead end D) more social than gracile australopithecines Some archaic Homo sapiens specimens resemble Homo erectus in having: a long, low cranial shape with large supraorbital tori. What feature(s) convinced Raymond Dart that the Taung child was not an ape? The first person to describe and classify an australopithecine fossil was. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. The earliest australopithecines first show up in the fossil record approximately: Australopithecus (Kenyanthropus) platyops is distinct from contemporary Australopithecus afarensis in having: p. 269. To everyone's surprise, the reconstructed skeleton of Ardi looks just like: _________? The australopithecines have been referred to collectively as gracile species (literally "gracefully slender") of early hominins. Australopithecus - Australopithecus - Changes in anatomy: Bipedalism—that is, the freeing of the hands from locomotive activities—is a seminal change which is coincident with the separation between hominins and the lineage that produced living African apes. There are … In addition, Paranthropus was the genus name assigned to the South African robust form, P. robustus, and questions … Note: the robust australopithecines -- now placed in the genus Paranthropus-- are distinguished by a more robust skull, face, and chewing apparatus … Australopithecus (/ ˌ ɒ s t r ə l ə ˈ p ɪ θ ɪ k ə s /, OS-trə-lə-PITH-i-kəs; from Latin australis 'southern', and Greek πίθηκος (pithekos) 'ape'; singular: australopith) is a genus of early hominins that existed in Africa during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene.The genera Homo (which includes modern humans), Paranthropus, and Kenyanthropus evolved from Australopithecus. Which of the following does the author of the article, and your instructor, think can reasonably be inferred from the skeleton of Ardipithecus? Because of their anatomical features, robust australopithecines are considered to be _____. In addition to a well-developed skull crest for the attachment of the temporalis (or temporal muscle, which is used in chewing), other specializations for strong chewing include huge… According to the author it is very likely that modern humans carry some Neanderthal genes in their DNA. Paranthropus boisei is a species of australopithecine from the Early Pleistocene of East Africa about 2.3 to 1.34 or 1 million years ago. Some australopithecines are reffered to as "robust" because: A. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! As a result, the fossil record of the evolution of the human pelvis over the past 4.5 Myr reveals a profound story concerning selective priorities during differ… Robust Australopithecines. H. habilis, "handy man", was so called because of evidence of tools found with its remains. In the 1930s, when the robust specimens were first described, the Paranthropus genus was used. Robust australopithecines are characterised by heavily built skulls capable of producing high stresses and bite forces, and some of the largest molars with the thickest enamel of any known ape. Robust australopithecines (Paranthropus) had larger cheek teeth than gracile australopiths, possibly because robust australopithecines had more tough, fibrous plant material in their diets, whereas gracile australopiths ate more hard and brittle foods. 14. Geography: Like their predecessors, Robust Australopiths, were restricted to Africa. ____ was contemporaneous with the australopithecines but had a significantly larger brain. This was a startlingly early date when it was made public over four decades ago. These fossils were assigned to Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus (Arambourg and Coppens, 1968), now recognized as Australopithecus or Paranthropus aethiopicus . In Australopithecus: Australopithecus robustus and Australopithecus boisei.Australopithecus robustus and A. boisei are also referred to as robust australopiths. An older species of Ardipithecus, Ardipithecus kadabba, is how old? The second discovery was that although the samples were certainly from bipeds, there were structural differences in some of the anklebones that indicated they would have walked a … B. introduction to biological anthropology 202-02 (spring 2017) exam 03/28/17 professor: fabian crespo multiple choice identify the choice that best completes the This has prompted some scientists to question whether Homo habilis behaved more like an australopithecine—with a shorter gait and the ability to move around in the trees (Wood and Collard 1999). These two lineages are represented in the fossil record by specimens assigned to, Australopithecus africanus and Australopithecus afarensis. Australopithecines were between 1.2–1.4 m (3 ft 11 in-4ft 7 in) tall, exhibited a fairly high degree of sexual dimorphism, with males larger than females, and were gracile : a body of slender build. Australopithecus robustus and Australopithecus boisei. Paranthropus is thought to have lived in wooded areas rather than the grasslands of the Australopithecus. C. they were probably much harrier than their anc. PPT – Robust Australopithecines PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 24ab84-ZDc1Z. in which contains two widely accepted species: P. robustus and P. boisei.However, the validity of Paranthropus is contested, and it is sometimes considered to be synonymous with Australopithecus.They are also referred to as the robust australopithecines.They lived between approximately 2.6 and 0.6 million years ago (mya) from the end of the Pliocene to. Paranthropus is a contested genus of extinct hominins, sometimes referred to as the robust australopithecines, which lived between approximately 2.6 and 0.6 million years ago (mya) from the end of the Pliocene to the Middle Pleistocene. They lived between approximately 2.6 and 0.6 million years ago (mya) from the end of the Pliocene to the Middle Pleistocene . b. they were much taller than their ancestors. In this image from our last discussion of human origins which of the numbered sections refer to the key result of adaptations that allowed a K-selected human ancestor to compete successfully with r-selected primates? Because of the fragile condition of the fossilized bones of Ardi they would crumble on touch, leading Tim White to call them:_____? While no real consensus exists on which evolutionary forces and opportunities brought about this change, bipedalism … For some researchers the H. neanderthalensis hypodigm is restricted to fossils from Europe and the Near East that used to be referred to as “Classic” Neanderthals. Most of them were relatively small, slender, and delicate boned compared to the somewhat more muscular, robust species (paranthropoids) that … Some investigators consider the phenomenon of allometry responsible for certain morphological characteristics of the skeleton of the robust australopithecines. (From your text book) The fraudulent Piltdown specimens that delayed the Taung Child's recognition as a hominid were discovered in. The idea that modern Homo sapiens evolved in Africa and then replaced other species of humans throughout the world is known as: Behaviorally modern humans-as evidenced by the archaeological record-appear: "The Upper Paleolithic lifestyle was based essentially on...". In East Africa two distinct lineages of hominid co-existed for at least a million years. The term “australopithecines” refers to a collection of perhaps as many as 10 Plio-Pleistocene hominin species from eastern, central, and southern Africa from about 4.2 million to 1.0 million years ago (mya) ().They are not members of the genus Homo, but are hominins that share a suite of morphologies with Homo including terrestrial bipedal locomotion, reduced canine and incisor sizes … The human pelvis is a remarkable structure that plays a central role in many critical biological processes, most notably bipedal locomotion, thermoregulation and parturition (childbirth). Formerly known as the australopithecines, they are not a “natural” group, in that they do not represent all of the descendants of a single common ancestor (i.e., they are not a “clade”). Each of these processes is essential enough to survival and reproductive success as to be under strong pressure from natural selection [1–4]. 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